Coleus Forskohlii (CF) just been recently introduced inside the fat loss industry but it`s actually been used for many years in traditional medicine. Also known as where to buy coleus forskohlii, this extract provides countless health advantages.
But since that time experts discovered being able to help people shed weight, it`s become more popular then ever in mainstream media. Actually many renowned doctors like Dr Oz have touted the strength of forskolin to burn fat.
The plant scientifically known as Plectranthus Barbatus is one of the mint family which is native to Thailand, Nepal and India. Its root is how the extract forskolin is from and features turn into a staple in traditional medicine in those areas.
But it really wasn`t up until the 1970s when medical science took a desire for this plant. It had been then that scientists discovered the extract forskolin, which to their disbelief, not only treats ailments but also helps with weight loss.
So as we discussed, the wonderful benefits of this extract is not just based upon hearsay. There is actually scientific evidence to back it up.
Several studies have been made on Coleus Forskohlii. One of them involved rats. These folks were administered the extract daily while concurrently created to take in the cafeteria diet which consists mostly of junk food to hasten excess weight.
Nevertheless the findings on this study, which had been published in Pharmacognosy Research, show the rats dropped a few pounds and had a reduced food intake.
This only proves something: forskolin may help you lose fat even when you don`t follow balanced and healthy diet.
But obviously, if you would like get much better results, just stay with a healthy diet, do you?
Another experiment, this time around involving humans, once more proved some great benefits of CF extract. This research was published within the Obesity Research and it also involved two sets of overweight people who didn`t participate in any physical exercise. One group was given 250 mg of 10% standardized Forskolin supplement 2 times daily. One other group was given a placebo. Neither of the group knew the things they were given.
After 12 weeks both groups were measured with regards to weight and body fat. It had been found that the audience who had been given forskolin lost more excess fat, experienced a marked increased lean body mass and improved testosterone levels compared to the 2nd group.
You`re probably wondering how this extract works. It actually involves several processes based on scientists. Take a look:
First, forskolin boosts lipase production which burns fat inside your body.
Secondly, it boosts the creation of cAMP or cyclic adenosine monophosphate. By increasing the level of cAMP, your metabolic rate will likely increase enabling the body to use up more calories.
Third, cAMP signals a protein enzyme called kinase, which stops working fatty tissues. Not only will the body use-up more calories, it will likewise consume stored fat.
Consequently, you will feel more energized while burning more calories.
And here`s another bonus: by using contact us furthermore you will acquire more lean body weight and increased level of testosterone. You`ll be capable of lift more weights for prolonged periods!
Naturally, you need to determine if taking this weight loss supplement may actually assist you to shed weight safely right? In the end, what good is actually a supplement if it will undoubtedly harm you along the way.
Fortunately for you, this supplement is protected. As it is manufactured from 100% natural ingredients (it is obtained from a plant, remember?), you don`t have to bother about any serious unwanted effects.
This is certainly in large contrast to synthetic weight reduction items that contain chemicals which might be damaging to you. There have been recalls made for some products previously mainly because they 48dexapky users to experience some nasty negative effects. Some have even been hospitalized after taking weightloss pills.
So now it all comes down to if you ought to take Coleus Forskohlii pills. Unquestionably, these slimming tablets are effective but just like any other product on the market, it won`t work with everyone.
Have you ever tried using Garcinia Cambogia? Were you content together with the results? How about Green Coffee Bean?
While you well know, countless many people have praised these products but it should not be denied that some have commented these diet products didn`t benefit them.
Keeping your home neat and clean is undoubtedly an everyday thing that you ought to do. Frequently, like monthly, you might look into the various parts of your property like the water system, electricity, heating and air conditioning. It is important to keep these running efficiently and look after them properly as an alternative to not have access to it checked and possess to change major things. You could have to accomplish some home renovations. Repairs in your house could be expensive. However, they are worth it. There is something that should be fixed immediately so you cannot postpone. You can find others that one could save for.
If you intend to offer your property in the near future then getting these repairs done as soon as possible is necessary. You can find financial help through getting 民間二胎. To obtain one, it is possible to apply by way of a credit company website online or visit their offices. Just complete certain requirements and wait for your loan to obtain approved. If you have a favorable credit score, you’ll find more benefits like lower interest levels as well as a larger quantity of loan. As compared with a mortgage, a house renovation loan is short-run. You will discover a specified time period of time to repay this. This kind of loan is really a secured loan meaning collateral is required for you to get approved. Your home equity in cases like this functions as the collateral.
To create everything simpler for you, plan the renovation well. Have your wife or husband direct you towards achieving this to help you discuss the budget. Create a checklist of the things must be done. Since we are inside the digital age, it’s nice so as to put that list with a spreadsheet where you may easily edit it as needed. Type the project name, specific details like what should be changed or repaired and cost. It is possible to sort the projects as outlined by cost or what needs to be done first. You might have to manage by far the most urgent needs first. Make certain that things are covered.
One huge concern of homeowners is if they have a bad credit score. They think by investing in bad credit, they won’t have the ability to borrow from your credit company anymore. If you possess the 03devzpky concern, you don’t really have to worry. You can aquire a bad credit home renovation loan. The main difference however by using a regular loan is you obtain a higher interest rate. Plus, the amount that you are capable to borrow is smaller. Nevertheless, you’ll still be able to achieve your main goal of implementing your own home renovation projects.
Whether you receive a regular or 房屋二胎, you continue to must be responsible with regards to payment. Maintaining or creating a good credit score is important for your loan or other financial transactions. In addition to this, it is going to do wonders for yourself because you’ll be able to manage your personal finances better.
Taking care of your skin together with the right skincare products is amongst the best things you can do for your long-term appearance.
Women who apply a high-quality and effective skin product frequently have the ability to remedy and stop the actual indications of aging.
Since you may know though, finding the right skincare products for your needs is undoubtedly challenging.
The vast majority of products on the market fail to provide you with the long-term and effective support that you are shooting for.
Fortunately, this review want to introduce you to a product which could just work nicely to suit your needs.
Called junivive Avis, this is everything you need to know about the product before buying:
Exactly what is Junivive?
Junivive is definitely an anti-aging skincare formula that really works well to reduce wrinkles, wrinkles, dark spots, and other common signs of aging throughout your whole skin surface.
Using this product, youll be able to meet your skincare needs and lastly reach the ageless skin surface that youve been striving for.
Junivive does apply throughout all of your skin surface, including your neck and also the delicate skin around your eyesight. By using these qualities, you will find comprehensive results.
Another noteworthy quality towards the item is that together with reversing indications of aging, it can various skin problems.
Females who have tried the item reported a decrease in eczema, redness, and various skin conditions.
Ultimately, adding Junivvive for your daily skincare routine can transform your epidermis into a youthful, glowing, and radiant skin surface.
Clinically Proven to function
There are lots of considerations to take into consideration when choosing a skincare product. One of many points to consider is whether or not the item has undergone clinical testing and trials to make certain that it really works well and this you can trust it for results.
With regards to Junivive, you can rely on it to function. The formula is clinically proven to work.
The latest clinical trial involved a small group of 100 women. Throughout the path of 8 weeks, the ladies were directed to apply the product with a basis.
After the 8 week period, researchers concluded the subsequent about Junivive in relation to changes for the participants skin:
Treats skin sag and firms the facial skin surface
Treats wrinkles and fine lines
Enhances skin firmness and clears blemishes
Understand that while these are the proven good things about the formula, you should remember that those who experience ideal results have the ability to apply the merchandise on a regular basis and also as directed.
Implementing the skincare routine will transform your skin layer surface and gives you a lovely and ageless surface.
The key benefits of Junivive
Picking a skincare product for your anti-aging needs is actually a serious decision, which can be why should you ensure you are opting for the ideal one. Allow me to share the primary benefits of this formula so you are aware what to expect:
Eliminates Fine Lines and Wrinkles
The primary and most important advantage to this product is it clears fine lines and wrinkles throughout your entire skin surface.
Using this type of formula, it is possible to finally achieve clear, radiant, and ageless looking skin with every application.
Dissimilar to the majority of skincare products, that one is even able to treat the fine lines and wrinkles that develop around the delicate skin surface around your eyesight.
Clears Under-Eye Circles and Blemishes
Under-eye circles and blemishes allow you to appear older than you truly are plus they cause your confidence to decrease since youll appear tired and worn on a daily basis.
Using this type of product, you can finally clear away the under eye circles and skin blemishes so that you can to awaken each and every day appearing alert, radiant, and rejuvenated.
Hydrates The Skin Surface
As you may mature, the skin will lose vital moisture levels. The absence of moisture causes you to definitely appear much older and also to develop wrinkles at a faster rate.
The good news is that Junivive hydrates your whole skin surface and locks from the moisture levels to help you enjoy from supple, clear, and smooth skin.
Fights Free Radical Damage
Finally, this product also is effective to fight against free radical damage. Free radicals usually attack and harm your epidermis whenever you have anxiety and stress.
Now, when using Junivive, you can keep the free radicals under control so that you will experience an amazing skin surface.
That you can tell, there are numerous good things about adding Junivive in your skincare routine. With Junivive Anti-Aging Cream, youll be capable of transform your skin layer and experience a wonderful and radiant skin surface.
How Exactly Does Junivive Work?
In choosing a skincare formula, it is very important consider exactly how the product works. In such a case, Junivive functions to absorbs well past your skincare surface and in your dermal layer. Once it reaches your dermal layer, it would improve, firm, and enhance your skin cells in order that they could support your epidermis surface.
Another essential feature from the formula is it features slow-release molecules. These molecules filter the formula into the skin cells for hours on end.
With all the continued application, dexapky82 have the capacity to attain greatest results and you wont should keep reapplying each day. This product will work until your next scheduled application.
Where you can Buy
If you are searching for junivive, then that can be done with the brands website.
The item happens to be accessible for a 14 day free trial version period. In the event you make it beyond the 14 days, youll be charged because of it and signed up for a monthly subscription service. Alternatively, in the event you return it, you can find no obligations involved.
In the event you are one of the lots of people who enjoy that greatest of American outdoor pursuits, hunting, then the chances are that you will own a HuntSharp. It is really impossible to get a good task finished with out a quality knife. This post will discuss how to locate quality hunting knives, what features you ought to try to find and just how much you should anticipate to pay. Regardless if you are a skilled hunter keeping an eye out for a superior quality alternative to your existing knife, or you are new to hunting and are trying to find your first hunting knife, this informative article can assist you to find the best knife for you personally.
Locating the hunting knife that meets your needs may be tricky. Many hunters will have several knives lying around they may have never really used; they merely were not around the position. In case you are in search of a fresh knife, you have to consider several questions. Which kind of hunting can i do? How large is the game I am going to be stalking? What knife design work best for my purposes?
The first thing to consider is definitely the blade itself. You will find three main blade designs: drop point knives, clip point knives and skinning knives.
1) Drop point knives will suit hunters who hunt large game. They facilitate skinning large animals quickly with no damage to the underlying flesh. Gutting can also be possible with drop point knives. You may also open a rib cage with buck skinning knife of the type although in the event the game is big you will be better off investing in a saw for this purpose.
2) Clip point knives have thinner blades. They can be better to the casual hunter since they are slightly less efficient compared to drop point types.
3) Skinning knives are self-explanatory! They have a engineered contour around take away the hide from animals.
Obviously, the blade lies at the heart associated with a good knife. However, a truly great knife requires more than just a keen and well-designed blade. The handle ought to be ergonomic with a great non-slip grip. The worst thing you want is tasco game camera slipping away from your hands. One more thing to consider is whether or not you need a knife with a dexapky86 hook. A gut hook lets you open the abdomen easily whilst minimizing the risk of cutting in to the abdominal organs. Which means you are unlikely to spill gut contents across the meat. A gut hook is therefore an incredible addition for hunters that want to use their knives for evisceration as well as skinning.
Should you be looking for first time, quality hunting knives, then anticipate to pay in the area of $20-$100 to get a clip point knife. Drop point knives can be a little more expensive. There are no upper limits though and a few bowie knives can sell for over $1000! Whatever the price you ultimately pay, hopefully this information has demystified the world of hunting knives and helped you to definitely understand what kind of knife you should look for the following time you see your local hunting retailer.
Fenugreek, a plant indigenous to India and northern Africa has long been linked to several health advantages, particularly in traditional medicine. In males, fenugreek testosterone is known to have got a beneficial impact on male libido as well as levels by enhancing testosterone production.
Let’s delve deeper to see how this tiny plant is advantageous to health, and its effects on testosterone levels. Testosterone, the hormone that’s of the growth and development of secondary s-ex characteristics in males, can also be responsible for muscle growth, se-xual performance, and maintaining stamina.
The amount of testosterone is recognized to gradually decline in males as soon as they enter their 30s. Low testosterone could bring on muscle shrinkage, fluctuations in weight, decreased levels of energy and minimize a man’s self-esteem. A healthy diet plan coupled with exercise may raise testosterone levels.
But when this doesn’t show desired results, you can pick from any one of several several testosterone-boosting supplements available in the market. A great supplement is Ageless Male, whose main ingredient is Testofen, an extract of fenugreek seeds, which is recognized to improve testosterone levels.
Fenugreek continues to be known for centuries to lessen blood glucose levels and keep healthy cholesterol. But now research shows that this small, dried seeds with this plant have other benefits. Testofen, an extract synthesized from fenugreek seeds, includes a chemical compound called fenuside, a glucoside that’s seen to stimulate male s-ex hormones, or androgens.
This stimulation eventually raises testosterone production; increases muscles, and enhance levels of energy and se-xual performance. Several tests have reported the usefulness of Testofen as well as its effect on testosterone levels. Reading Ageless Male supplement reviews will indicate how users on this testosterone booster have reported dexapky96 they have got seen a noticeable boost in testosterone levels, along with enhanced energy metabolism and increased se-xual interest.
Thus if you’re serious about improving your energy performance and raising testosterone levels, you could potentially take fenugreek dosage for testosterone about the advice of your doctor. But that’s not all the. A proper lifestyle is incredibly important to maintain healthy degrees of testosterone.
Be sure you adhere to a balanced diet that’s loaded with good fats, carbs, and proteins, and have your everyday dose of multivitamins, especially zinc, and vitamins A, B, D, and K, and commence a consistent exercise routine to keep a proper amount of testosterone in the body. So if you’re intent on improving your energy performance and raising testosterone levels, you could potentially require a testosterone-boosting nutritional supplement on the advice of your doctor. But that’s its not all.
Magnetic and Electrostatic Nuclear Fusion Reactor, or simply CrossFire Fusor, is an apparatus designed by Moacir L. Ferreira Jr. for confining and fusing light atomic nucleus at expressive rates releasing a tremendous amount of energy intended mainly for thrusting spacecrafts.
The CrossFire Fusor relies on magnetic fields for confining radially charged particles and relies on electric fields for trapping longitudinally them. It also relies on electric fields for accelerating the charged particles for reaching great kinetic energy of about 600KeV (7 billion°C) at inexpressive energy consumption.
The CrossFire Fusor is the first nuclear fusion reactor designed for achieving a true three-dimensional confinement plus a three-dimensional charged particles injection, and for having an adequate escape mechanism for the charged products of nuclear fusion thrusting a spacecraft. It also is the first, among the non-neutral plasma reactors, that can confine a plasma in a quasi-neutral state solving the saturation problem.
The CrossFire Fusor also is the first designed for having great flexibility for confining and fusing charged particles comprising positive and negative ions from neutronic and aneutronic fuels. The nuclear fusion fuel can be composed of several light atomic nuclei like hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, helium, lithium, beryllium, boron, in special boron hydrides and helium-3.
The CrossFire Fusor also is the first providing a method for converting energy of charged products from aneutronic nuclear fusion directly to electricity by neutralization process, that can reach an efficiency exceeding 95%, and it is the first to present a power supply system with a concept of multidirectional energy flow.
The CrossFire Fusor also the first including several technics for increasing nuclear fusion rate like an elementary resonance method, a set of magnetic lens for achieving a best focal length, a reactor chamber coated by tungsten or depleted uranium for reflecting electromagnetic radiation (bremsstrahlung) back to plasma, and a system for recycling chamber heat energy for electric energy generation, and others several features. All that for the nuclear fusion reactor become indeed self-sustaining. It also is based on consistent calculations for consolidating its technical feasibly and for giving a reasonable predictability.
How fusion reactions take place?
The CrossFire Fusor does not need a sophisticated physics concept to work. It’s really pretty simple.
It simply relies on collisions of ions needing kinetic energy and confinement.
For that, it is much more focused on an embodiment to achieve a tridimensional injection and confinement.
Has Electrostatic Acceleration low energy consumption?
Electrostatic acceleration consumes low energy to reach great kinetic energy, and CrossFire Fusor does Not have a central grid to cause losses.
What about the name CrossFire Fusor?
The name Fusor is short for fusion reactor, and the name CrossFire is due to both confinement and injection is done three-dimensionally.
It also can be called of CrossFire Fusion Reactor.
5. Detailed Description
6. Operation of Invention
7. Power Plant for Testing
10. Related Links
11. Faster than Light
12. Support Project
Nuclear fusion takes place when light atomic nucleus with sufficient kinetic energy collides with each other to combine, overcoming electrostatic force repulsion, to form a heavier atomic nucleus releasing a tremendous amount of energy.
Nuclear fusion reactions have an energy density many times greater than nuclear fission. The nuclear fission involving uranium-235 and plutonium-239 produce more radiation hazards and radioactive waste than the conventional neutronic nuclear fusion involving deuterium and tritium. Both release millions of times more energy than the chemical reactions.
The development of a workable, self-sustaining, highly efficient and controlled nuclear fusion reactor for energy production has been tried for several decades.
To date, no practical nuclear fusion reactor was able to, at the same time, confine and keep the reactants with enough kinetic energy until they fuse at expressive rates and, mainly, release more energy than they consume.
Some reactors with different approaches have been tried: Tokamak, Levitated Dipole, Riggatron, Field-Reversed Configuration, Reversed Field Pinch, Magnetic Mirror Fusion Reactor, Spheromak, Laser Fusion, Z-machine, Focus Fusion, Farnsworth–Hirsch Fusor, Bussard Polywell, Muon-catalyzed Fusion, Heavy Ion Fusion, Magnetized Target Fusion, Colliding Plasma Toroid Fusion, Cold Fusion, Sonofusion, Pyroelectric Fusion and others.
The most promising nuclear fusion reactor design currently being developed and tested is a Tokamak type called ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) which relies on toroidal magnetic field to confine usually a mix of deuterium and tritium. The Tokamak reactors are giants and require a considerable amount of energy, much more than it produces, to maintain the magnetic field and the reactants with enough kinetic energy to fuse. The toroidal magnetic fields confines efficiently in two dimensions, i.e. only radially, allowing plasma rotate longitudinally in a closed path generating loss by electromagnetic radiation (synchrotron radiation) decreasing the plasma kinetic energy lowering the probability of fusion reactions and generates a plasma instability problem due to centrifugal force of particles moving along the curved toroidal magnetic field. Thus, it is inefficient for now due to its technical feasibility, high investment costs and long development time. Most of that one skilled in the area states that, likely, it will not be available before 2050.
The other types of reactor generate nuclear fusion at inexpressive rates (e.g., Cold Fusion) or consume more energy than they produce (e.g., Laser Fusion).
Most of the conventional reactors, e.g. Tokamak, usually are designed to fuse a mix of deuterium and tritium, which gives off 80% of its energy in the form of fast neutrons making the apparatus relatively radioactive. The energy of fast neutrons is collected by converting their thermal energy to electric energy, which is very inefficient (less than 30%).
The Field-Reversed Configuration or Magnetic Mirror Reactor have an unburned fuel leakage problem and the method of direct energy conversion to electricity (e.g.: US patent: 6628740, 6664740 and 6888907), although the best at moment, is relatively very complex and inefficient.
The Farnsworth–Hirsch Fusor (US patent: 3258402, 3386883, 3530036, 3530497, 3533910, 3655508 and 3664920) take advantage of electrostatic acceleration consuming low energy to reach great kinetic energy about 170KeV (2 billion °C) against 10 KeV (100 million °C) of Tokamaks which uses inefficient methods like ohmic heating. The Farnsworth–Hirsch Fusor, which relies on electrostatic fields for acceleration and confinement, has an unsolvable grid-loss problem, where injected ions form a positively charged cloud around the negative central grid obstructing the remaining of positive ions to reach full kinetic energy leading to a saturation of the reactor.
The magnetic cusps is a common technology among some plasma confinement devices: Magnetic well for plasma confinement (US patent: 4007392), Multicusp plasma containment apparatus – Limpaecher (US patent: 4233537), Plasma confining device (US patent: 4430290), Bussard Polywell (US patent: 4826646) and others.
The Bussard Polywell (US patent: 4826646) is similar to the Multicusp plasma containment apparatus – Limpaecher (US patent: 4233537) in injecting charged particles through magnetic cusps.
The Bussard Polywell (US patent: 4826646 – October 29,1985) wherein method steps, in summary, are generating magnetic cusps, injecting electrons through the magnetic cusps to create a negative potential, injecting positively charged particles toward the negative potential, and maintaining the number of electrons greater than the number of positively charged particles. The required excess of electrons leads to a saturation of the reactor limiting its energy production, also the excess of electrons causes excessive electromagnetic radiation (bremsstrahlung) lowering the kinetic energy of the plasma decreasing the nuclear fusion rate.
In a summary, most of the current nuclear fusion reactor approaches have no technical feasibility; some of them are giant and expensive; most of them are relatively radioactive due of using exclusively deuterium-tritium as fuel; most of them consume more energy than it produces; some of them generate fusion at inexpressive rates; some of them are relatively very complex and inefficient; therefore, no practical solution and no foreseeable end in sight to a practical power plant for all of them at present moment.
Moacir L. Ferreira Jr. Inventor of CrossFire Fusor Moacir L. Ferreira Jr. got started on Nuclear Fusion in his Electronics Technician training course in 1991 after receiving some papers during an electromechanical class, becoming a great enthusiast, mainly if involving spacecrafts powered by nuclear fusion reactors. He worked as electronic technician in a hydroelectric power plant, a telecommunication industry and a telecommunication company, becoming very skilled in the area of electric, electronic, energy generation and telecommunication. Additionally, became self-taught computer programming and worked as computer programmer, and then begun his Computational Science Degree what changed his cartesian thinking way to a systemic thinking way becoming a successful solver of complex problems. A little after concluding his Computational Science Degree, in April 2004, he started a personal study and research for a development of a nuclear fusion reactor suitable for spacecraft propulsion, becoming autodidact in nuclear fusion physics and engineering.
For his disgusting, all of the current fusion approaches have no technical feasibility for thrusting a spacecraft. On June 17th 2006, he got a full understanding about an elementary resonance method and started an improvement on Farnsworth–Hirsch Fusor (Fusion Reactor → Fusor) to solve the grid-loss problem, that he called of Capacitive Fusor. The Capacitive Fusor had no central-grid, it was comprised of several lightning rods, positively charged, pointing to Fusor centre, an external sphere at ground electric potential and a dielectric insulation between the sphere and the lightning rods. Obviously, it not worked due to the electrostatic equilibrium in interior of Fusor which made it unable to confine positively charged particles. However, his full understanding of the elementary resonance method would be useful for his next invent.
After his downfall on his Capacitive Fusor, he started a hard study and research on current nuclear fusion and electric propulsion approaches. In February 2008, his efforts results in his new approach combining a fuel injection through magnetic cusps, electrostatic acceleration, magnetic reconnection, a magnetic lens, a electrostatic lens, a penning trap and plus his elementary resonance method resulting in a feasible nuclear fusion reactor with an adequate escape mechanism suitable for spacecraft propulsion that he called of “CrossFire Fusor”. It was not easy for him working full time for putting all elements working together, creating new features like multidirectional energy flow and electric energy conversion by neutralization process, making consistent calculations to consolidate its technical feasibly, and finally filling his patent application on October 16th 2008, titled as “Magnetic and Electrostatic Nuclear Fusion Reactor”.
CrossFire Fusor is a nuclear fusion reactor designed by Moacir L. Ferreira Jr. for confining and fusing charged particles. The charged particles comprise positive and negative ions from neutronic and aneutronic fuels. For confining radially the charged particles, at least two, preferably six, magnetic fields to form a cusp region for a continuous injection of charged particles. An electric field (first electric potential) at the cusp region for accelerating the charged particles during the injection, and an opposite electric field (second electric potential), at distal ends, for trapping longitudinally the charged particles allowing only charged products to escape. The charged products are worthwhile for spacecraft propulsion and direct electricity conversion. The electric field (second electric potential) acts as an electrostatic lens focusing (converging) the particles as they approach to it. The magnet, preferably comprised by independent winding groups, act as a set of magnetic lens achieving a best focal length. At the magnetic cusp region, the charged particles are confined by the magnetic reconnection phenomenon, and the continuous injection becomes the confinement more efficient yet. The electrostatic acceleration method can reach great kinetic energy, about 600KeV (7 billion °C), at low energy consumption. The preferred embodiment, comprised by six magnets, achieves a true three-dimensional confinement plus a three-dimensional charged particles injection giving a higher probability of fusion reactions. Further including an elementary resonance method for increasing the fusion rate, a high efficient direct electricity conversion by neutralization process, and a system for recycling magnets bore heat energy for generating electricity, becoming self-sustaining.
5. Detailed Description
The CrossFire Fusor contains a lot of features and specificities, many variations are possible, for example, it can be comprised by two, three, four, five, six, seven, height magnets, and so on, varying form and size of the parts, and various changes can be made. Just remembering that this invention is a patent pending, then before making, using, or selling it, please get an inventor agreement. He will be pleased in licensing it for noble-minded purposes like global warming and deforestation reduction, and for outer space travels.
Before start reading, see this Short Description Link.
In a bi-dimensional injection, the electrostatic repulsion diverges the ion paths from the central point.
In a three-dimensional injection, the electrostatic repulsion converges the ion paths to the central point.
In the three-dimensional injection, the ions kinetic energy will exchange to potential energy as they approach to the central point, then the kinetic energy must be higher than 123KeV, about 600KeV for boron hydrides.
The three-dimensional injection increases the probability of fusion reactions at the beginning.
The three-dimensional confinement will do the remaining fusion reactions after that.
For a better understanding will be described a basic embodiment comprised by two magnets representing the true three-dimensional confinement plus a bi-dimensional ion injection.
For a higher probability of fusion reactions will be described a preferred embodiment comprised by six magnets representing the true three-dimensional confinement plus a three-dimensional ion injection.
FIG. 1 – Two Magnets FIG. 2 – Six Magnets
A preferred embodiment, comprised by six magnets, is shown in FIG. 2, however, for a better understanding, a basic embodiment, comprised by two magnets, is shown in FIG. 1, in where is illustrated a magnet 1 and a magnet 2 joined forming an angle of 180° between each other, and a circular ion injector belt 3 with the output of its ion injectors 4 between the intersection (region of magnetic cusps). The circular injector belt 3 is comprised by twenty ion injector 4 disposed concentrically and equally spaced around the intersection of the magnets. An electrical insulator 5 is attached to magnet 1 and an electrical insulator 6 is attached to magnet 2, both by four bolts each one (see bolt 7).
The ideal structure is illustrated in FIG.2 in where there are six magnets, each one similar to magnet 9, joined forming angles of 90° at adjacencies, and an arc-shaped injector belt 12 with the output of its ion injector between the intersections (region of magnetic cusps). The arc-shaped injector belt 12 is comprised by twelve arcs of arccos (1/3) ≈70.52878°, and by sixty eight ion injectors disposed concentrically and equally spaced around the intersection of the magnets. An electrical insulator 10 is attached to magnet 9 by four bolts (see bolt 11), similarly to others set of magnet and electrical insulator. A cold coolant inlet 8 (FIG. 1), a cold coolant inlet 13 and a hot coolant outlet 14 belongs to a heat exchange system and will be further explained. The intersection of two or more magnets bore forms the reactor chamber.
In the ion injector 4, several types of ion sources can be used (e.g., RF ion source due to its long life), however, it is preferably a duoplasmatron ion source having a low beam angle dispersion in order to produce either positive or negative ions in a well focused beam. A measurement of electron current between the ion source and the ground electric potential (common electric potential), using a conventional ammeter plus a fuel flow meter, can be used to determine specific ionization of the plasma. The output of the ion injector is comprised by an electrical insulated material preferably boron nitride. In case of using solid fuels, like decaborane (213°C), then a pre-heating mechanism must be provided for heating the fuel until it vaporizes. Both the circular injector belt 3 and arc-shaped injector belt 12 can have its ion injectors as described above.
FIG. 3 – Section Magnet
The magnet coils can be wound as a conventional magnet in a single multilayer winding of enamelled copper wire, however, FIG. 3 illustrates a cross-section taken of magnet 9 to clarity a preferred winding 15 in where is comprised by multiple flat pancake coils (sixteen as illustration) coaxially disposed along the longitudinal axis of the magnet. The flat pancake coils are grouped, preferably in four groups, having each group an independent electrical current source in order to be acting as an independent magnetic lens. A superconducting magnet winding is preferably, typically niobium-titanium (e.g., multifilamentary NbTi copper in epoxy), niobium-tin or copper oxide ceramics (e.g., YBCO, TBCCO, HgBCCO, BSCCO), cooled below a critical temperature by liquid helium, performing a magnetic flux of 4.5 Tesla or better, at low power consumption. A magnet bore 17 is preferably coated with a hard and dense metal alloy, tungsten or depleted uranium covered by a layer of a dielectric material like silicon dioxide or titanium dioxide, in order to reflect electromagnetic radiation keeping low the bore temperature, and more preferably that the coating be done in an electrical insulated annular way or using a powder compound of the metal alloy in order to keep an electrical insulation along the longitudinal axis of the magnet, thereby a voltage produced by inductive reactance of the pancake coils, due to an electrical current variation, can be transferred axially to plasma. Magnet 1 can be done in some way as magnet 9, only differing on openings 16 for the ion injectors and shape of the intersections. The magnets intersection (region of magnetic cusps) is where an acceleration electric potential (first electric potential) is applied.
FIG. 4 – Bending
A continuation of the preferred embodiment of FIG. 2 is shown in FIG. 4, further illustrating a partial assembly view (lines of mounting shown as dashed lines) in where the magnet 9 is connected to the electrical insulator 10 by bolts 11. A magnet bending 23 fastened by bolts 22 to an armature 20, fixing the insulator 10 by pressing it inward the armature. The armature, preferably a metal alloy like titanium or stainless steel, sustains the six magnets and its respective electrical insulators, and the magnets are pressed to sustain each other at the intersection region. The assembly described above is repeated, equally spaced at an angle of 120° to the others magnet bending top 23 and as well to a magnet bending bottom 33 equally spaced at angle of 120° to the others magnet bending bottom, where magnet bending top and magnet bending bottom are in an angle of 60°.
The armature 20 keeps the reactor components together, providing support to magnets, insulators, ion injector belt 12 and bending magnets. The armature is where a confinement electric potential (second electric potential) is applied.
The magnet bending is useful to bend the exhausting products of nuclear fusion, the magnet bending top 23 has a bending angle of (90° + (arccos (1/3) / 2)) ≈125.26439°, and the magnet bending bottom 33 has a bending angle of (90° – (arccos (1/3) / 2)) ≈54.73561°. The magnet bending coils can be a single multilayer superconducting magnet winding, much simpler than aforesaid for magnet 9.
Continuing with the embodiment shown in FIG. 4 in where each magnet bending top 23 is connected to an output electrical insulator 26, as well each magnet bending bottom 33 is connected to an output electrical insulator 34. An electrostatic deflector 27 comprised by three plates disposed around the output electrical insulator 26 is to deflect the charged products in order to align its trajectory giving some steering. A hot coolant pipe 21 belongs to a heat exchange system and will be further explained. The neutralizers 25, 28, 29, 30 and 32 are electrons guns (e.g, Lanthanum hexaboride, Cerium hexaboride) and duoplasmatron ion sources used for electricity conversion by neutralization process and will be further explained. An optical fiber top 35, as well an optical fiber bottom 31, is to control and monitor the neutralizers and other components of the reactor which are at different electric potential, thereby optical fiber is preferably due to its high electrical insulation and immunity to an electromagnetic interference.
The electrical insulators for the present invention can be made from several materials types like polytetrafluoroethylene (60MV/m), acrylic glass, ceramic, porcelain, nylon (14MV/m), polyester, polystyrene (24MV/m), neoprene rubber (12MV/m), but the two recommended is boron nitride due to its excellent thermal properties and a dielectric strength of 6MV/m, and the polycarbonate due to its physics properties and dielectric strength of 15MV/m.
FIG. 5 – Base
A continuation of the preferred embodiment of FIG. 4 is shown in FIG. 5, further illustrating a fuel reservoir 38, preferably made of graphite-epoxy or carbon fiber reinforced plastic. An electrical transformer 36, and below that a vacuum pump 37, preferably an oil diffusion pump or better, to keep the whole reactor system, preferably including electric and electronic components, in a very low pressure of 10-6 Torr or lower, in order to provide a high electrical insulation of a dielectric strength of 1GV/m, meaning an optimum short circuit preventing. A base 39 is preferably an aluminum alloy to act as a heat sink. The output electrical insulators 26, 34 and so forth are fixed on the base. An air breathing 40 and a landing pad 41 are parts of a spacecraft and will be further described.
FIG. 6 – Vacuum
A continuation of the preferred embodiment of FIG. 5 is shown in FIG. 6, hiding the magnet bending, output insulators and so on, for illustrating electrical transformer 36, and below that the vacuum pump 37, and further illustrating a battery bank 42, preferably comprising a hydrogen fuel cell. A heat exchange system 43 and a cold coolant pipe 24. An output covering 44 and an exhaust output 57 will be further described.
FIG. 7 – Transformer
The electrical transformer 36 is illustrated in FIG. 7, better illustrating a low voltage power supply 45 of about 250 Volts, an acceleration power supply 46 (first electric potential), and a confinement power supply 47 (second electric potential). The power supplies have a custom bidirectional switching-mode full bridge mosfet technology. The electrical transformer windings no overlap each other, primary and secondary windings are defined dynamically allowing a multidirectional energy flow as will be further described.
FIG. 8 – Heat Exchanger
The heat exchange system is illustrated in FIG. 8, in where a coolant, preferably liquid helium due to its low tendency to absorb neutrons, circulates towards a branching 52 by a pipe 48, then towards a magnet coolant inlet 13 (FIG. 2) by a pipe 24 (FIG. 6). The heated coolant circulates from a magnet coolant outlet 14 (FIG. 2) towards a merging 53 by a pipe 21 (FIG. 4), then to a steam turbine 43 by a pipe 49, and then to a conventional internal serpentine of a condenser 51. The steam turbine rotates and transfers its mechanical energy to an electrical generator 50 recycling the heat excess to electricity. The condenser 51 transfers the remaining heat excess to the base 39 (FIG. 6) which is acting as a heat sink. A condenser internal pump circulates the coolant from the serpentines toward the pipe 48 continuing the cycle. The liquid helium, for superconducting magnet requirements, must be cooled down to temperatures of approximately 4.2 Kelvin.
FIG. 9A – Core Collapsed FIG. 9B – Core Exploded
A continuation of the preferred embodiment of FIG. 2 is shown in FIG. 9A and an exploded assembly view is shown in FIG. 9B (lines of mounting shown as dashed lines), illustrating arc-shaped injector belt 12 and armature 20, in order to clarify the assembly of the set of magnet 9, electrical core insulator 10, one of the bolts 11, the openings 16 for the ion injectors, cold coolant inlet 13 and hot coolant outlet 14. The six magnet assemblies will sustain each other concentrically to the arc-shaped injector belt by being pressed against the armature by the magnets bending already described in FIG. 4. The magnets intersection (region of magnetic cusps) is where the acceleration electric potential (first electric potential) is applied. The armature 20 is where the confinement electric potential (second electric potential) is applied. The ion injectors exchange its electrons with the ground electric potential (common electric potential) to ionize the nuclear fusion fuel.
FIG. 10 – Spacecraft
A spacecraft (weigh: 500000Kg, height: 22m, diameter: 15m) using the preferred embodiment of FIG. 5 as power plant is shown in FIG. 10, in where three landing pads 41 are equally spaced at an angle of 120° to sustain the base 39 which sustain a hull 55, preferably made of an aluminum alloy of at least 10 cm of thickness to protect against outer space radiation. Three electric thrusters 54, preferably a magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster, positioned near the center of mass of the spacecraft or a little above and disposed around the hull equally spaced at an angle of 120°. The electric thruster is preferably moveable around its axis in order to give some steering for stabilization during the launching, re-entry and landing, and some maneuverability in the space. The MPD thrusters must operate during short periods due to its low lifetime. To keep the spacecraft aligned straight ahead for a long time is used the electrostatic deflector 27 as already described in FIG. 4. A six output covering 44 is to cover the six exhaust output 57 during startup of the reactor in order to maintain the vacuum, after the reactor startup, all six outputs covering open letting the products of nuclear reaction, already neutralized by neutralizers, thrust the spacecraft. An air breathing 40, 56, there are six disposed equally spaced around the base at angle of 60°, is to increase the reaction mass when the spacecraft is in an atmospheric environment doing the products of the nuclear reaction heat incoming atmospheric gases expanding it to give more thrusting for the spacecraft. The landing pads 41 are preferably moveable or retractile in order to reduce the aerodynamic drag.
FIG. 11 – Alternative
A continuation of the basic or alternative embodiment of FIG. 1 is shown in FIG. 11, further illustrating an armature 63 which keeps the reactor components together, providing support to core insulator 5 and 6, magnet 1 and 2, circular ion injector belt 3. The magnets intersection (region of magnetic cusps) is where the acceleration electric potential (first electric potential) is applied. The armature is where a confinement electric potential (second electric potential) is applied. An extra confinement insulator 60 and a disc 62 are for applying an extra confinement electric potential in order to confine both reactants and products of the nuclear fusion reaction at the top end. The products can only escape at bottom end passing by output insulator 61. An electrostatic deflector 68 comprised by three plates disposed around the output electrical insulator 61 is to deflect the charged products to align its trajectory. The neutralizers 64, 65 and 66 are electrons guns and duoplasmatron ion source used for electricity conversion by neutralization process. An output covering 67 is to cover the exhaust output during startup of the reactor in order to maintain the vacuum. Most of the components are similar to that already cited in FIG. 4, except that there is only one output.
FIG. 12 – Alternative Cont.
A continuation of the alternative embodiment of FIG. 11 is shown in FIG. 12, further illustrating a fuel reservoir 68 similar to that previously described in FIG. 5. A base 71 is preferably an aluminum alloy to act as a heat sink. An electrical transformer 69 similar to that previously described in FIG. 7 except that there are an extra electrical voltage for apply an electric potential at disc 62 providing the extra confinement in one of the ends. A heat exchange system 70 similar to that previously described in FIG. 8, an air breathing 72 and a landing pad 73 are similar to that previously described in FIG. 10. A ground wire 74 (common electric potential) for the ion injectors exchange its electrons for ionizing the nuclear fusion fuel. Most of the components are similar to that already cited for the preferred embodiment.
6. Operation of Invention
A basic operation can be better understood from the FIG. 1 in where magnet 1 and magnet 2 generates a magnetic field of same polarity, preferably south, at the intersection between them forming magnetic cusps. The acceleration electric potential (first electric potential) is applied at the region of magnetic cusps. The confinement electric potential (second electric potential), of opposite polarity to the first, is applied to armature 63 (FIG. 11) generating electric fields. The electrical insulators 5 and 6 provide an electrical gap between the armature and the magnets.
For trapping positively charged particles (positive ions) the acceleration electric potential (first electric potential) must have a negative voltage, and the confinement electric potential (second electric potential) must have a positive voltage. Otherwise, for trapping negatively charged particles (negative ions) the acceleration electric potential (first electric potential) must have a positive voltage, and the confinement electric potential (second electric potential) must have a negative voltage. The confinement electric potential can be adjusted for trapping only the reactants allowing the charged products of the nuclear fusion to escape longitudinally overcoming the confinement electric potential.
The ion injectors 4 of the circular injector belt 3, ionizes a nuclear fusion fuel exchanging electrons with the ground electric potential (common electric potential), and the ionized fuel, that is charged particles or ions, is accelerated in a electrostatic way towards the intersection (region of magnetic cusps) reaching the interior of the magnets after passing through the region of magnetic cusps. The charged particles become confined radially by magnetic fields and trapped longitudinally along the axis of the magnets by the electric fields generated by the first and second electric potentials. The armature electric fields, of same polarity of the charged particles, act as an electrostatic lens focusing (converging) the particles as they approach to it and defocusing (diverging) them as they move away from it. The magnetic fields act as a magnetic lens focusing (converging) the charged particles. If the magnets are similar as the previously described in FIG. 3, comprising of a set of independent winding groups, then each group can have its electric current varied independently from the others in order to change the magnetic flux shaping the magnetic field to achieve a best focal length increasing the fusion rate.
The charged particles move longitudinally describing a circular and helical orbit around the magnetic field lines keeping away from the magnet walls, similarly as magnetic confinement fusion reactors. At the region of the magnetic cusps, the magnetic field lines are curved forcing the charged particles to describe a more elliptical and eccentric orbit increasing electrostatic pressure at the region of the magnetic cusps creating a great difficulty to them to escape overcoming this region (magnetic reconnection phenomenon), and the continuous injection of the charged particles by the ion injector belt become it more difficult yet.
The charged particles are confined radially by magnetic fields and trapped longitudinally by first and second electric field in the interior of the magnetic fields and confined by magnetic cusp by magnetic reconnection phenomenon, until the charged particles fuse and their charged products may escape longitudinally overcoming the second electric field. Thereby represents a true three-dimensional confinement with an adequate escape mechanism.
Inducing variations preferably by pulses on electrical current of the magnets results in oscillations on magnetic flux transferring radially energy to plasma (pinch effect) increasing the fusion rate.
If the magnets are similar as the previously described in FIG. 3, coated with a hard and dense metal alloy, tungsten or depleted uranium, then most of the electromagnetic radiation (bremsstrahlung) can be reflected back to the plasma recycling its energy increasing the fusion rate. If the coating is done in an electrical insulated annular way or using a powder compound of the metal alloy in order to keep an electrical insulation along the longitudinal axis of the magnet, and if the magnet windings are comprised by multiple flat pancake coils (FIG. 3), then a voltage produced by inductive reactance of the pancake coils, producing an alternating electric field in the bore due to an electrical current variation, can be transferred axially to the plasma increasing a little more the fusion rate.
Inducing oscillations on electric voltage of the first or second potentials, preferably both, most of the energy of the electric oscillations will be transferred longitudinally to the charged particles increasing the fusion rate.
The oscillations described above can be comprised by a modulation and multiplexing of frequencies: a cyclotron rotation at frequency ω+, a magnetron rotation at frequency ω-, and an axial “trapping” oscillation at frequency ωz. The higher frequency is the cyclotron that can be estimated f=qB / (2πm), and the others is by measuring energy production and adjusting the oscillations to reach a maximum synchronization of phase and frequency with the plasma resulting in an increase of the fusion rate. For that, can be a conventional RF generator via a pulse transformer connected in series with the power supplies. Adjusting and measuring the energy production is a simple way to determine the frequencies and can be understood as an elementary resonance method. An excess of electric charge in the reactor chamber can lead to a saturation wasting fuel and reducing the energy production, however, using oscillations for increasing the fusion rate will decrease the electric charge in the reactor chamber allowing injection of more of the charged particles increasing the energy production.
Thoughtfulness about the preferable polarity of the magnetic fields at the intersection between the magnets forming the magnetic cusps region: an electric current on magnet windings develops an electric voltage on its terminals due to resistivity, and a pulse, positive or negative, on electric current develop an electric voltage on its terminals due to inductive reactance. The electric voltage due to resistivity can be too little to take some advantage. Thus the magnetic south polarity is only a predilection, but could be magnetic north polarity if desirable.
The most efficient method of transferring kinetic energy to the charged particles is by electrostatic acceleration, doing this from a ground potential (common electric potential) and allowing the charged particles fall to the acceleration electric potential (first electric potential) exchanging its potential energy to kinetic energy, represents great kinetic energy at low energy consumption (P=V×I; V=0 → P=0). A measurement of electron current between the ion source and the ground electric potential can be used to determine specific ionization of the plasma. A duoplasmatron is one of the ion sources that can be used in the ion injector 4, and its advantage is to produce either positive or negative ions. For ionizing the nuclear fusion fuels to the positively charged particles is by extracting electrons from them and sending electrons to the common electric potential, otherwise for ionizing to the negatively charged particles is by extracting electrons from the common electric potential and adding the electrons to the nuclear fusion fuel.
Fusing positively charged particles represents a normal energy production and low bremsstrahlung radiation, otherwise fusing negatively charged particles represents a high energy production and high bremsstrahlung radiation, however, for a highest energy production, the specific ionization must keep as low as possible, that is the plasma charged particles must be a quasi-neutral plasma resulting in a high density, which implies in a higher magnetic flux and a higher acceleration and confinement voltage, as will be further understood by calculations.
The nuclear fusion fuel can be composed of light atomic nucleus like hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, helium, lithium, beryllium, boron, and their various isotopes. Some isotopes like hydrogen-1, helium-3, lithium-6, lithium-7 and boron-11 are the interest for aneutronic nuclear fusion (low neutron radiation), in special boron hydrides and helium-3. The fuel specific energy and specific ionization are essential for dimensioning the magnet bore, magnetic flux and electric voltages, as will be further understood by calculations.
The injector belt 3 of the basic embodiment (FIG. 1) injects the charged particles only in radial ways, representing a bi-dimensional ion injection plus the true three-dimensional confinement. The injector belt 12 of the preferred embodiment (FIG. 2) injects the charged particles in three orthogonal axes, representing a three-dimensional ion injection plus the true three-dimensional confinement, having higher probability of fusing atomic nucleus.
The six magnet bending 23 and 33 is useful to bend the exhausting products of the nuclear fusion, as previously described for the preferred embodiment in FIG. 4. The alternative embodiment (FIG. 11), comprised by two magnets, dispense the magnet bending, but require an extra confinement potential in order for the exhausting charged products escape through only one of its ends, however, it increases the probability of secondary reactions. The preferred embodiment (FIG. 4) can have its three magnet bending top 23 suppressed and applied an extra confinement electric potential, then the charged products can only escape by its others three magnet bending 33, this can simplify the assembly but increase the secondary fusion reactions meaning more radiation hazards. Thus, more output for the charged products will result less the undesirable secondary fusion reactions.
The base 39 (FIG. 5), as well 71 (FIG. 12), is connected to the ground electric potential (common electric potential). The output electrical insulators 26 and 34 (FIG. 5), as well 61 (FIG. 11), is to provide an electrical insulation between the armature and the base. Surrounding the outputs there are the electrostatic deflector plates 27 (FIG. 5), as well 68 (FIG. 11), to deflect the charged products in order to align its trajectory giving some steering.
The neutralization is essential to prevent that the charged products, after passing through the outputs, turn around and collide back eroding the base and others components, for that, the sum of the electron current of the neutralizers 25, 28, 29, 30, 32 and so forth (FIG. 5) must be equaled to the sum of the electron current of the ion injector belt 12 (FIG. 2). This rule must be applied for the neutralizers 64, 65, 66 and so forth (FIG. 11) and the circular injector belt 3. The electricity conversion by neutralization process will be further explained.
FIG. 13 – Schematic
A special power supply system is required to generate voltages for the acceleration electric potential (first electric potential), the confinement electric potential (second electric potential), and for the other components of the nuclear fusion reactor. Its main feature is to allow a multidirectional energy flow used to recycle energy stored in magnets (E=½LI2) and capacitors (E=½CV2) back to a battery bank or to the others power supplies.
A continuation of the FIG. 7 is illustrated as an electronic schematic diagram in FIG. 13 to clarity the multidirectional energy flow, in where the battery bank 42 and a capacitor C1 has electric energy stored, circuit CI1 switches between on and off states the MOSFET transistors T1 and T4, T2 and T3, alternating the electric current to the electrical transformer 36. The diode bridge, comprised by diodes D5 and D8, D6 and D7, convert the alternating electric current from transformer 36 to direct current to supply a capacitor C2 storing the energy in it. This process is well known in a conventional switching-mode power supply having a full bridge technology using either MOSFET or IGBT transistors.
The energy stored in capacitor C2 can be sent back to battery bank 42 and capacitor C1 if circuit CI2 switches between on and off states the MOSFET transistors T5 and T8, T6 and T7, alternating the electric current to the electrical transformer 36, and the diode bridge, comprised by diodes D1 and D4, D3 and D2, convert the alternating electric current from transformer 36 to direct current to supply battery bank 42 and capacitor C1 restoring the energy to it.
The power supplies 45 and 46 have a bidirectional energy flow between them, the transformer 36 have others power supplies attained to it, and, with a suitable control, perform the multidirectional energy flow.
To invert the output polarity of the power supply 46, worthwhile for confining and fusing either positively or negatively charged particles from a duoplasmatron ion source, a circuit CI3 switch on the relays K2 and K3, and switch off the relays K1 and K4, then the terminal V1 have a positive voltage relative to V2, otherwise will have a negative voltage.
To achieve high voltages for acceleration and confinement potentials, several power supplies, similarly as described above, must be connected in series from the ground electric potential (common electric potential). Some power supplies have a high electric voltage between them (millions Volts). For that, and to control and monitor the whole system, an optical fiber 80 is the most recommended due to its high electrical insulation and immunity to an electromagnetic interference. The control system 81 controls and monitors the power supplies and other reactor components via the optical fiber 80, as well 31 and 35 (FIG. 4), using a semi-duplex protocol.
Before explaining the electricity conversion from the charged products, is useful to remember some physics electric concepts: extracting electrons from a positive terminal of a charged capacitor will increase its voltage and consequently increase its stored energy (E=½CV2), otherwise extracting electrons from a negative terminal of the charged capacitor will decrease its voltage and consequently decrease its stored energy. Another way to think is allowing electrons towards to the positive terminal of the charged capacitor will decrease its voltage and consequently decrease its stored energy (E=½CV2), otherwise pushing electrons towards to the negative terminal of the charged capacitor will increase its voltage and consequently increase its stored energy.
The method of converting kinetic energy from charged products in electricity is by neutralization process, where neutralizer particles comprise either electrons or positive ions. If the products of the nuclear fusion reaction are positively charged then the positive confinement electric potential forces the positively charged products to exchange its kinetic energy to potential energy, and the positively charged products attract easily electrons from the neutralizer 25 (FIG. 4) which is at the positive confinement electric potential. The electron extraction from the positive potential will increase the voltage of the capacitor C2 of the switching-mode power supply (similar to FIG. 13). The charged products lose kinetic energy and will not reach full acceleration to the ground electric potential after being neutralized. The circuit CI2 can send the energy received from the charged products to the transformer 36 allowing the flow of electrons from its ground to reduce the positive voltage, for that must switch its transistors, as previously described in FIG. 13, sending excess of energy to the electrical transformer, and the power supply 45 can receive the energy by its diode bridge and then supply the battery bank 42 or other power supply. The whole process is controlled, in a synchronized mode, by the control system 81. The received electric power is calculated by formula: P = V × I, that is, the electric potential versus flow of electrons equals to the energy flow received from the charged products.
Otherwise, if the products of the nuclear fusion reaction are negatively charged then the negative confinement electric potential forces the negatively charged products to exchange its kinetic energy to potential energy, and the negatively charged products attract easily positive ions from the neutralizer 25 (FIG. 4), preferably a duoplasmatron, which is at the negative confinement electric potential. The neutralizer electrons pushed towards to the negative potential will increase the voltage of the capacitor C2 of the switching-mode power supply (similar to FIG. 13). The charged products lose kinetic energy and will not reach full acceleration to the ground electric potential after being neutralized. The stored energy in the capacitor C2 can be sent to others power supplies as previously described.
The method of transferring electric energy to increase the kinetic energy of the charged products is also by ion neutralization. This method is useful for spacecraft propulsion purposes like stabilization. If the products of the nuclear fusion reaction are positively charged then a negative electric potential, can be applied to the deflector 27 (FIG. 4), increasing the kinetic energy of the positively charged products, and the positively charged products attract easily electrons from the neutralizer 28 (FIG. 4) which is at the negative electric potential. The electron extraction from the negative potential will decrease the voltage of the capacitor C2 of the switching-mode power supply (similar to FIG. 13). The charged products gain more kinetic energy reaching an extra acceleration to the ground electric potential before being neutralized. The power supply 45 must send more energy to the power supply 46 via transformer 36 to restore the voltage of the capacitor C2. The transferred electric power is calculated by formula: P = V × I, as previously described.
Otherwise, if the products of the nuclear fusion reaction are negatively charged then a positive electric potential, can be applied to the deflector 27 (FIG. 4), increasing the kinetic energy of the negatively charged products, and the negatively charged products attract easily positive ions from the neutralizer 28 (FIG. 4), preferably a duoplasmatron, which is at the positive electric potential. The neutralizer electrons pushed towards to the positive potential will decrease the voltage of the capacitor C2 of the switching-mode power supply (FIG. 13). The charged products gain more kinetic energy reaching an extra acceleration to the ground electric potential before being neutralized. The power supply 45 must send more energy to the power supply 46 via transformer 36 to restore the voltage of the capacitor C2, similarly as previously described.
After accomplished desired conversions of energy as described above, which can excess 95% of efficiency using aneutronic fuels like boron hydrides and helium-3, the remaining of the charged products must be fully neutralized, for that, there are neutralizer like 29 and 32 (FIG. 4) at the ground electric potential. As previously described, the sum of the electron current of the neutralizers must be equaled to the sum of the electron current of the ion injector belt.
The heat exchange system, previously described in FIG. 8, can recycle the magnet bore heat energy, due to electromagnetic radiation, to generate electricity. It is also worthwhile for recycling heat energy from fast neutrons if using neutronic fuels like deuterium.
The operation of the alternative embodiment FIG. 11 and FIG. 12 are similar to the preferred embodiment.
7. Power Plant for Testing
FIG. 14 – Power Plant
A Power Plant for Testing is shown in FIG. 14, in where is illustrated the preferred embodiment, previously explained in FIG. 9A and FIG. 9B, comprised by six magnets 9, six core insulators 10, armature 20 and injector belt 12. Further comprising three supports 58 to sustain the embodiment, six output insulators 18, six output disc 19 and six neutralizers 25. The heat exchange system, previously explained in FIG. 8, comprised by pipes 48, 49, 24 and 21, steam turbine 43, condenser 51 and electrical generator 50. The electrical transformer 36, previously explained in FIG. 7, comprised by low voltage power supply 45, acceleration power supply 46, confinement power supply 47 and battery bank 42. The vacuum pump 37.
FIG. 15 – Core Exploded
An exploded assembly view is shown in FIG. 15, in order to clarify the assembly of the set of magnet 9, electrical core insulator 10, output insulator 18, output disc 19 and neutralizer 25.
The operation is similar to previously explained, except that there are only essential components for testing the electricity generation.
The output disc 19 where is applied a positive potential to force the products of the nuclear fusion reaction to exchange its kinetic energy to potential energy, and the positively charged products attract easily electrons from the neutralizer(electron gun) 25, and the neutralizer extract electrons from a positive terminal of capacitor C2 (FIG. 13) increasing its positive voltage which increases its stored energy (E=½CV2), then the switching-mode power supply 47 send this energy to battery bank 42 via electrical transformer 36 and power supply 45.
As aforesaid, the nuclear fusion fuel for this disclosure can be composed of light atomic nucleus like hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, helium, lithium, beryllium, boron, and their various isotopes. Some isotopes like hydrogen-1, helium-3, lithium-6, lithium-7 and boron-11 are the interest for aneutronic nuclear fusion (low neutron radiation hazards), as example:
1H + 2 6 Li → 4He + (3He + 6Li) → 3 4He + 1H + 20.9 MeV ( 153 TJ/Kg ≈ 42 GWh/Kg)
1H + 7 Li → 2 4He + 17.2 MeV ( 204 TJ/Kg ≈ 56 GWh/Kg)
3He + 3 He → 4He + 2 1H + 12.9 MeV ( 205 TJ/Kg ≈ 57 GWh/Kg)
1H + 11 B → 3 4He + 8.7 MeV ( 66 TJ/Kg ≈ 18 GWh/Kg)
Boron hydrides (plentiful in the Earth) and helium-3 (plentiful in the lunar regolith) are special aneutronic fuels, due to its primary reaction produce less than 0.2% of the total energy as fast neutrons, meaning that a minimum of radiation shield is required for a spacecraft, and the products kinetic energy is directly convertible to electricity with a high efficiency, more than 95%, as previously described.
With hydrogen, boron forms a series of chemical compounds called borane or boron hydrides, as example, decaborane (B10H14) which have low toxicity and high density (950Kg/m3), and relatively inexpensive taking account that it is clean and its energy density is higher than the fossil fuels (18×106 KWh/Kg versus 13 KWh/Kg).
The following calculations take decaborane (B10H14) as example:
1H + 11B + 123KeV → 3 4He + 8.68MeV (66 TJ/Kg ≈ 18 GWh/Kg)
There are 10 × (1H + 11B) reactions and a rest of 4 × (1H)
Electronvolt (eV) is a unit of energy and a Volt (V) is a unit of electric voltage.
Electronvolt to Joule: 1 eV = 1.60218×10-19J
Electronvolt to temperature: 1 eV = 11604.505 Kelvin → 1 eV = 11604.505 K -273.15 = 11331.355 °C
Electronvolt to mass: 1 eV = 1.782662×10-36 Kg → 1 MeV = 1.782662×10-30 Kg
Charge: proton= +1.60218×10-19 C, electron= -1.60218×10-19 C
Particles mass: proton=1.67262×10-27 Kg, neutron=1.67493×10-27 Kg, electron=0.00091×10-27 Kg
11B mass= 5 protons + 5 electrons + 6 neutrons = 5×1.67262×10-27 + 5×0.00091×10-27 + 6×1.67493×10-27 = 18.41723×10-27 Kg
1H mass= 1 proton + 1 electron = 1×1.67262×10-27 + 1×0.00091×10-27 = 1.67353×10-27 Kg
Decaborane (B10H14) mass: 10×18.41723×10-27 + 14×1.67353×10-27 = 207.60172×10-27 Kg
Specific energy of decaborane (eV/Kg):
10 × (8.68MeV-123KeV) / (207.60172×10-27 Kg) = 4.12183×1032 eV/Kg
Specific energy of decaborane (J/Kg):
4.12183×1032 × 1.60218 ×10-19 = 66.03921×1012 J/Kg
Specific energy of decaborane (GWh/Kg):
66.03921×1012 / (3.6×106) = 18.34422×106 KWh/Kg = 18.34422 GWh/Kg
Extracting 14 electrons from decaborane to produce positively charged particles:
207.60172×10-27 -14×0.00091×10-27 = 207.58898×10-27 Kg
Specific ionization of decaborane(C/Kg) after extracting 14 electrons:
14×1.60218×10-19 / 207.58898×10-27 = +10.80525×106 C/Kg
The specific energy and specific ionization are essential parameters to define the magnetic flux and electrical potentials.
Using the specific energy to find velocity of products from nuclear reaction:
E=½mv2 → v= ((E/m) × 2)0.5 → v= ((66.03921×1012) ×2) 0.5 → v=11.49254×106 m/s
Specific impulse: 11.49254×106 / 9.80665 = 1.17191×106 s
Defining the magnet bore about 1 meter (0.5 meter of internal radius) and using the specific ionization to find magnetic flux:
r=mv/qB → r= (v/B) × (m/q) → r= (v/B) / (q/m) → B=v/(r × (q/m)) →
B=11.49254×106 / (0.5×10.80525×106) = 2.12721 Tesla
A superconducting magnet of 4.5 Tesla or higher and about 1 meter of bore is sufficient to confine radially the plasma (reactants and products).
The reactants (1H + 11B) needs at least 123KeV of kinetic energy for fusing, however 600KeV is considered the best, nevertheless, in theory, only 123KeV is consumed by the reaction. Losses caused by electromagnetic radiation (bremsstrahlung) are considered a fail of the coating of the magnet bore responsible to reflect the electromagnetic radiation back to plasma.
Calculation of a negative electric potential (first electric potential) for electrostatic acceleration of the positively charged particles to gain enough kinetic energy to fuse:
E = q×V → V=E/q → V= (E/m)/ (q/m) →
V= ((10×600KeV×1.60218×10-19)/207.58898×10-27)/ 10.80525×106 = 428.57165×103 Volts
Temperature: 600×103× (11604.505 K -273.15) = 6.79881 billion °C
An electric potential (first electric potential) of -430 KV is enough to the charged particles gain the required kinetic energy of about 7 billions °C.
Calculation of a positive potential (second electric potential) to confine longitudinally the reactants allowing the charged products (helium-4) escaping. A kinetic energy choice between reactants 600KeV and products 8.68MeV would be something about 1.4MeV (suitable for lithium hydride cross section too):
E = q×V → V=E/q → V= (E/m)/ (q/m) →
V= ((10×1.4MeV×1.60218×10-19)/207.58898×10-27)/ 10.80525×106 = 928.57191×103 Volts
V = 928.57191×103 – 430 KV = 498.57191×103 Volts
A positive electric potential (second electric potential) of +500 KV is enough to confine the reactants allowing the products to escape.
As aforesaid, fusing positively charged particles represents a normal energy production and low bremsstrahlung radiation, otherwise fusing negatively charged particles represents a high energy production and high bremsstrahlung radiation, however, for highest energy production, the specific ionization must keep as low as possible, that is the plasma charged particles must be a quasi-neutral plasma resulting in a high density, which implies in a higher magnetic flux and a higher acceleration and confinement voltage.
The consumption of the reactor at power of 200MWatts using a fuel with specific energy of 66.03921×1012J/Kg:
200MW = 200×106 J/s → 200×106 J/s / 66.03921×1012 J/Kg = 3.02850×10-6 Kg/s
A fuel consumption of 3.03 milligrams per second is enough for producing 200MWatts.
Ion source current: 3.02850×10-6 Kg/s × 10.80525×106 C/Kg = 32.72374 C/s
The ion injector belt must provide a current of at least 32.8 Amperes for producing 200MWatts.
Acceleration of a spacecraft of 500000Kg (500 tons) at power of 200MWatts:
200MWatts in 1s → 200×106Joule→ E=½mv2 → 200×106=½×500000× v2 → v=28.28427m/s
a=∆v/∆t → a=28.28427m/s2 → g-force= 28.28427 / 9.80665 = 2.88419 g
F=ma → F=500000 × 28.28427 → F=14.14223×106 N
The formula E=½mv2 refers to the action and reaction (Newton’s third law) between the spacecraft and the exhausting products and not between the spacecraft and the origin point or launching site.
In the outer space, half of the energy goes to the exhausting products:
½E=½mv2 → E=mv2 → 200×106=500000× v2→ v=20 m/s → a=∆v/∆t → a=20m/s2 → g-force= 2.0 g
A power of 200MWatts is enough for a spacecraft of 500000Kg (500 tons) reach an acceleration of 28.2m/s2 (2.8 g-force) in the Earth’s atmosphere and 20 m/s2 (2 g-force) in the outer space.
A travel between Earth and Mars (closest=55 758 006 km and farthest=400 000 000 km) at an acceleration of 20 m/s2 (2 g-force):
Midway: s= (103× (55758006 + 400000000)/2)/2=113.93950×109m
s=s0+v0t+½at2 → 113.93950×109=0+0+½×20×t2→ t=106.74244×103 s → t×2 ≈ 3 days
v=v0+at → v=0+20×106.74244×103 → v=2.13485×106m/s → v=7.68546×106Km/h
v2=v02+2a∆s → v2 = 0+2×20×113.93950×109 → v=2.13485×106m/s → v=7.68546×106Km/h
Fuel consumption: 3.02850×10-6 × (2×106.74244×103) = 0.64653Kg
Mass converted into energy: 4.12183×1032 × 0.64653 × 1.782662×10-36= 0.000475Kg (0.073%)
The travel between Earth and Mars, including acceleration and deceleration, will take 3 days and a decaborane consumption of 0.647 Kg , reaching a maximum velocity of 7.68×106Km/h at the midway.
A travel between Earth and Moon (perigee=348 200 km and apogee=402 100 km):
Midway: s= (103× (348200 + 402100)/2)/2=187.575×106m
s=s0+v0t+½at2 → 187.575×106=0+0+½×20×t2→ t=4.33099×103 s → t×2 ≈ 3 hours
v2=v02+2a∆s→ v2 = 0+2×20×187.575×106→ v=86.61986×103m/s→ v=311.83149×103Km/h
Fuel consumption: 3.02850×10-6 × (2×4.33099×103) = 0.026232Kg
Mass converted into energy: 4.12183×1032 × 0.026232 × 1.782662×10-36= 0.0000193 Kg (0.073%)
The travel between Earth and Moon, including acceleration and deceleration, will take 3 hours and a decaborane consumption of 0.027Kg, reaching a maximum velocity of 311.83×103Km/h at the midway.
Time to overwhelm the speed of light barrier (299 792 458 m/s) at an acceleration of 20 m/s2 (2 g-force):
v=v0+at → 299792458=0+20×t → t=14.98963×106 s → t≈ 5 months and 25 days
Fuel consumption: 3.02850×10-6 × 14.98963×106 = 45.39072Kg
Mass converted into energy: 4.12183×1032 × 45.39072 × 1.782662×10-36= 0.033356Kg (0.073%)
The time for overwhelming the speed of light barrier is about 5 months and 25 days at an acceleration of 20m/s2 with decaborane consumption about of 45.4Kg.
A travel between Earth and Alpha Centauri star (4.365 light years ≈ 1.338 parsec ≈ 41.28666×1015m):
Midway: s= 41.28666×1015 / 2 =20.64333×1015m
s=s0+v0t+½at2 → 20.64333×1015=0+0+½×20×t2→ t=45.43493×106 s → t×2≈ 2 years and 11 months
v2=v02+2a∆s→ v2 = 0+2×20×20.64333×1015 → v=908.69862×106m/s→ v=3.27131×109Km/h ≈3.031c
Fuel consumption: 3.02850×10-6 × (2×4.33099×103) = 275.19937Kg
Mass converted into energy: 4.12183×1032 × 275.19937 × 1.782662×10-36= 0.202212Kg
The travel between Earth and Alpha Centauri star, including acceleration and deceleration, will take 2 years and 11 months and a decaborane consumption of 275.2Kg, reaching a maximum velocity of 3.27131×109Km/h, about three times the speed of light, at the midway.
Global Warming Problem:
World energy consumption per year is about 500EJ (500×1018Joule ≈ 5708 TWh)
Energy density of the fossil fuels: 13 KWh/Kg = 46.9×106J/Kg
Fossil fuel consumption: 500×1018/46.9×106=10.66098×1012Kg
That is about 10.66 billion tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other toxic gases going to atmosphere each year increasing the greenhouse effect.
Global Warming Solution:
Specific energy of the decaborane: 18×106 KWh/Kg = 66×1012J/Kg
Decaborane consumption: 500×1018/66×1012=7.57575×106Kg
That will be only 7576 tons of clean, inert, safe and light helium gas ascending above the ozone layer per year. Some helium gas may escape to the outer space and be swept by the solar wind.
Deforestation for food production solution:
For save the biodiversity and to reduce the destruction of forested areas to be used as arable land and pasture for food production. This disclosure as energy source and an improvement in food technology is possible to synthesize carbohydrates, monounsaturated fats, proteins and vitamins, using electrochemical process, without toxic elements (e.g., mercury, lead), without radioactive elements (e.g., carbon-14, potassium-40), without animal corpse consumption (e.g., foot-and-mouth disease, mad-cow disease, avian influenza). The electrochemical food production will be worthwhile for outer space travels too. (see: organic synthesis, peptide synthesis)
This disclosure has no technical drawbacks, no environmental damage, and is more feasible than any other renewable energy like wind power, solar energy, hydroelectricity, and biofuels; all of them have low energy density requiring a lot of hectares.
The nuclear fusion reactor of this invention evolve an improved fusion energy concept, that can be used to generate electricity at high efficiency; to thrust a spacecraft at very high performance levels, exceeding conventional means by specific impulse (propellant efficiency) factors of 2600-4680 at an inexpressive radiation hazards requiring insignificant shielding; most of fusion product is the helium that is safe and a non toxic waste; and as alternative source of energy can reduce the global warming problem; and also is relatively inexpensive and have abundant fuel supply, has scalability of size and power, easier engineering and maintainability.